The fourth editon, released in 2016,  of this handy reference about how to prevent and manage infection in group care settings for children can be purchased from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the national organization of pediatricians and other pediatric health professionals.  The fourth edition has been completely reviewed and updated to reflect the latest recommendations from Caring for Our Children and the American Academy of Pediatrics, Red Book:  2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. It includes new Quick Reference Sheets on Norovirus, MRSA, and Clostridium difficile ("C diff"). Revised 11/30/16.

HealthyChildren.org is a trustworthy website for parents. The American Academy of Pediatrics maintains the site. Recent articles were about measles. This article is in three formats. Choose the printed article in English or Spanish. You can have a narrator read the words. This option highlights the words in the article as the narrator says them. Combining visual and auditory presentation improves understanding.

This workshop draws on the curriculum published  by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2010 to teach how to manage the risks involved in giving medication in group care settings using the 5 Rights: the right child receives the right medication in the right dose, by the right method at the right time.  Participants practice skills and discuss scenarios to identify gaps in practice.  Key elements that should be in documentation of medication, policies and procedures are reviewed. Demonstrations and discussions include tips for giving a variety of different types of medication: liquids and pills, eye, ear, nose, topical medications such as diaper cream and sunscreen, inhalers and emergency medicines.

Many children's medicines come in liquid form. Household spoons may be handy for giving children liquid medicines, but using them is not a good way to give the correct dose. Parents and educators should use a syringe, special medicine cup, special dosing spoon or dropper. These devices are marked in milliliters (mL).

Different household teaspoons hold different amounts of liquids. Tablespoons vary in size too. A spoon that gives too little medicine may keep the medicine from working. If a spoon gives too much medicine, the overdose may cause a serious problem. For example, repeatedly giving a child too much acetaminophen (Tylenol)can lead to liver failure. More than 70,000 children go to emergency rooms each year for accidental medicine overdoses. Use of the wrong measuring device causes some of these. Many liquid medicines come with a special dose measuring device calibrated to accurately measure the particular medication. Be sure to use it. If there is no device with the medication, a pharmacist can provide one. If a syringe is used, squirt the medication slowly and gently between the child's tongue and the side of the mouth. This makes it easier for the child to swallow the medicine.

The American Academy of Pediatrics urges parents, physicians and pharmacists to use only metric measurements for oral liquid medications. Metric measurements for liquids in milliliters (ml) or cubic centimeters (cc) should be on prescriptions, medication labels, and dosing devices. This helps children get the correct dose of medication. Do not measure liquid medication in teaspoons or tablespoons.

Please share this information with teachers/caregivers and families. Download and display the new poster in English and in Spanish. Copy and distribute the updated article - also available in both English and Spanish. To access the article in in Spanish, click on "en Espanol" on the page. On the same page, you can listen to the article read to you in English or Spanish.

Families and early childhood educators need to understand how much medicine to give. They should know how often and how long to give it. If they are uncertain about the instructions, they should not give the medication until they have asked the child's health care provider about how to do it. Use the forms in the Medication Administration Packet, Appendix X in Model Child Care Health Policies, 5th edition. This publication is available at www.ecels-healthychildcarepa.org.

Health professionals recommend keeping medicine out of children's reach. Use child safety caps, understanding that these are not "child-proof". They make it harder for the child to open the medicine, giving adults more time to stop the child from getting the medicine. Check labels carefully before giving two medicines together because they may have the same ingredient. Do not mix medicine with food unless the instructions on the medicine say to do so. Also, urge families to bring a list of all medicines the child is taking each time the child sees a health professional.

For medicine mistakes, call the Poison Help number at 800-222-1222. If the child is unconscious, not breathing or having seizures, call 911 first. Be careful when getting rid of unused medicines. In some places, you can drop off medicines at a police department. Make sure to remove labels with personal details. Another way to safely dispose of medicines is to mix them with coffee grounds or kitty litter in a plastic bag you can seal. Throw this sealed bag away in a trash container where children and animals can't get to it. Don't dump the medicine in the toilet or drain, unless the medicine label says it is safe to do it. If you aren't sure how to dispose of a medicine, ask a pharmacist about what to do.

Contributed by Nancy Alleman, ECELS Lead Training and Technical Assistance Coordinator, in collaboration with Ian M. Paul, M.D., M.Sc., FAAP, a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs.

The PA Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Pediatrics published the 5th edition of Model Child Care Health Policies in October 2013. Significantly revised and updated, the new edition is a practical tool for adoption and implementation of best practices for health and safety in group care settings for young children. This edition replaces the previously published version and updates of individual policies that were posted on the ECELS website. ECELS encourages early education and child care professionals to adapt the model policies as site-specific documents that fit their programs. Two formats are available: one replicates the hard copy publication. The other format, posted 12-12-2014, has form fields that allow users to insert their site-specific details directly into the PDF document.

Molds grow quickly in moist areas. They are a potent cause of allergy symptoms. Quick response to moisture collections is key. Clean up mold and moisture on hard surfaces with water and a detergent, then dry the surfaces so no moisture remains. Remove surfaces that cannot be completely cleaned.

Pay attention to the humidity of the air. Hardware stores sell inexpensive devices that measure humidity levels. Aim for an indoor humidity between 30% and 60%. Dehumidifiers remove moisture from the air. Use them where needed to keep humidity in the healthful range. For more information about how to safely clean mold and manage moisture in educational facilities, go to the Environmental Protection Agency website: http://www.epa.gov/mold/index.html. Some of the materials are available in Spanish as well as in English.*

West Nile Virus (WNV) has been a problem in the U.S. for more than ten years. The virus spreads to humans who are bitten by mosquitos that have fed on infected birds. Several types of ticks are common in gardens and bushes. They carry infections from animals to humans when they feed while attached. Prevent these diseases by preventing mosquito and tick bites. Use insect repellent as recommended below and follow instructions on the product label.

Mosquitoes may carry serious diseases. West Nile Virus is present in Pennsylvania. Mosquitoes are spreading Zika virus in the US. Health departments in Pennsylvania are working to eliminate standing water where mosquitoes breed. Chemicals that kill mosquitoes are being used to treat some areas. Spraying may be done from the ground or from the air in larger areas. If your facility or child care home is located near a spray area, remain indoors while spraying is being done. Close windows, and turn off ventilation systems that draw-in outside air during and 30 minutes after spraying ends.

The National Center on Health offers visually attractive, simply stated resources for infant, toddler and preschool care. Anyone can down-load the electronic copies from the Internet. Head Start programs can order hard copy from the National Center at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. These materials have excellent content for teachers/caregivers to use in their programs and to share with families:

Growing Healthy Flipcharts http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/health/healthy-active-living/HAL_Resources/NCHEnglishFlipChartF011514_7-7final508.pdf

Take a look at the National Center’s Health Tips (Fact Sheets) for Families* (and teachers): Download an individual one page fact sheets when you need a handout on one of the topics or download the complete series in English [PDF, 1.2MB] and Spanish (español) [PDF, 309KB]* The following topic are available as handouts:

Active Play includes tips to help infants, toddlers and preschoolers develop positive active play behaviors.

Health Literacy provides information about how to understand and use health information that doctors and other health professionals give.

Healthy Breathing provides information about eliminating first-hand, second-hand and third-hand exposure to tobacco smoke.

Healthy Eating offers easy tips to help infants, toddlers and preschool-age children learn healthy eating.

Mental Health provides information about how to help infants, toddlers and preschoolers develop positive mental health behaviors.

Oral Health offers tips to promote oral health in infancy through preschool age.

Safety and Injury Prevention: Tips for Families (2 pages) provides easy tips families can use to ensure their children's health and safety at home, outside, in the water, and in a car or truck.

Dealing with Stress is a 4 page guide with simply stated, clear tips to help cope with stress in a healthy way.

*http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/health/health-literacy-family-engagement/family-education/tipsheetfamily.htm

This organization provides updated, practical information on the management of lice and scabies infestations, emphasizing the need to avoid harmful applications of pesticides. Click here for the website with practical tips and tools to address a lice outbreak in group care. 12/2012