Description of the insertion of a tube into the bladder to drain out urine for a child in child care who is unable to urinate in the usual way. Updated 2004

Colds, coughs and runny noses are more common in the winter than in any other season. Poor circulation of air, dry heated air and crowded indoor spaces make it easier to share germs. Children in their first couple of years of child care or school have one or two more colds than children their age who receive care only at home and who have no siblings to bring infection home. After three years of child care, children in child care have fewer colds than those who have not had the opportunity to build their immunity in group care.

 Colds, coughs and runny noses are more common in the winter than in any other season. Poor circulation of air, dry heated air and crowded indoor spaces make it easier to share germs that make people sick.

This module provides an overview of common illnesses that children experience. The most common illnesses are conditions and symptoms caused by infectious diseases. Some examples are: colds, fever, sore throat, cough, pink eye, ear infections, diarrhea, impetigo and ringworm, lice and vaccine-preventable infections. A few non-infectious conditions are common also. Examples of these are: constipation, allergies to any substance or food, eczema and asthma.

This module uses frequently updated content from websites supported by widely recognized national experts. It includes online videos and downloadable documents. Each person seeking PA Key credit must independently perform the learning activities and then complete the Self-Assessment. The completed self-assessment can be submitted on-line, or by sending it to ECELS as a scan attached to an email, or as a paper copy mailed to ECELS. The details are described in the instructions in the document packet for the module.  Be sure to follow the instructions in the “Important Reminders" box next to the list of self-learning modules on this webpage. (ECERS-ITERS: Personal Care Routines, Parents and Staff. Keystone STARS Core Knowledge Competencies K7.1 C3, K7.2 C1, K7.4 C3, K7.5 C1, K7.6 C1. Meets STARS Level 2 Performance Standard for Health and Safety.) Updated 8/2014

This workshop uses a game approach to teach appropriate response to common illnesses. The content includes myths and facts about childhood illnesses and when temporarily ill children need to be excluded from their group. Includes distribution of current reference materials and the opportunity to practice using them. The reference for the discussion is Managing Infectious Diseases in Child Care and Schools, a publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Handouts include some of the tables and Quick Reference Sheets from this book.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 44% of young children less than 5 years of age have already had tooth de-cay.  Tooth decay causes eating, speaking, learn-ing and behavior problems for young children.  Yearly, children in the United States miss over 51 million hours of school due to dental pain.

Infants and toddlers in diapers often get rashes-everything from tiny red bumps to more irritated tender areas.

Why do babies get rashes? One or more conditions can cause a diaper rash. The enzymes that help digest food can be irritating when they come out with feces (poop) into the diaper. Wet diapers can cause irritation where they are in contact with the skin. This is more likely to occur where the diaper rubs the creases of the upper thighs. Yeast growing in the warm, wet diaper areas can be another cause of diaper rash.

Some tips to help prevent diaper rashes are:

Change diapers often. Changing a diaper before it gets very wet and as soon after a child has a bowel movement helps. Prolonged contact of the skin with moisture from pee and/or feces irritates the skin.

Avoid irritating soaps and wipes. Use unscented and alcohol-free diaper wipes or just water rather than other skin cleaning products. Scented soaps and wipes that have alcohol in them can irritate a baby's bottom. The ingredients in many soaps remove the skin's natural oils. Without these normal oils on the skin, skin irritation is more likely.

If the diaper area is red and irritated, clean the skin by patting it with a diaper wipe, with cotton balls soaked in warm water or with freshly laundered, well-rinsed, soft, washcloths wet with water. Avoid rubbing the skin. Always use a fresh wipe, or different wet wash cloth each time you swipe. Once soiled, store reusable cloths in a washable, plastic-lined, tightly covered receptacle until they can be laundered.

Consider use of a barrier product . Ask the family to discuss with the child's health care professional the use of a barrier product if an infant has ongoing difficulty with diaper rash. Barrier diaper creams or ointments can help protect the skin from irritation caused by rubbing on the moist and/or soiled surface of a diaper. They are over-the-counter products that contain petroleum or zinc oxide. If the child has had a problem with diaper rash that requires use of a barrier medication, the program should have instructions from the child's health care provider and permission from the child's parent to use it. The product's container should have the child's name and instructions for use too. Put 2 or 3 tablespoons of the barrier cream on a facial tissue and bring it that way to the diaper changing surface. (Do not bring any of the containers of supplies to the diapering surface. Everything on the diapering surface will need to be disinfected after the diaper change.)

Apply the barrier in a thick layer, spreading it gently and smoothly across the diaper area. Be sure to cover the creases of the upper thighs under the edge of the diaper. When cleaning the child, remove only the soiled barrier product. Rubbing to remove the unsoiled lower layer of barrier product will irritate the skin.

The recommended medication administration and diaper changing procedures are in Caring for Our Children, (CFOC3) Standards 3.6.3.1 and 3.6.3.2 for medication administration and Standard 3.2.1.4 for the diaper changing procedure. Access these standards at www.nrckids.org.

Follow the instructions from the child's health care provider and the CFOC3 recommended procedures when using any diaper cream. Some diaper creams contain active ingredients that are not for prolonged use. Documentation of the product applications can be as simple as having a check mark in a diaper cream column on a diaper change log sheet. Note the date and time of the diaper changes there. This lets families know about the frequency of diaper changes and use of recommended medication.

If a diaper rash is bleeding, seems very sore to the child, or lasts more than a few days, be sure to seek guidance from the child's health care provider and check the procedures being used by anyone who is changing the child's diaper.

Contributed by Sarah Macdonald, MD, FAAP, CHOP Care Network High Point

In a 2013 update of Caring for Our Children, 3rd edition, national experts changed Standard 3.2.1.4 Diaper Changing Procedure. The steps are similar for diapering and changing soiled under clothing described in Standard 3.2.1.5.

In June 2013, ECELS worked with CCA for Social Good to update the diapering poster that infant/toddler child care providers can download and print for FREE from the ECELS website. From the website, the poster prints as three 8.5 x 11 inch pages. Caregivers can assemble the three pages into a poster. For $12.50, purchase a laminated 22 x 28 inch poster by sending a request to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Common diapering errors can often lead to cross contamination in the early learning environment.  Addressing these 12 common errors properly will help reduce the spread of germs while diapering. Updated 5/2012

Click on the title for the link to download a fully Illustrated, step-by-step, up to date, tri-fold Diapering Poster. The poster shows the procedure for safe and sanitary diapering. The same steps apply to changing soiled underwear with the child lying down, a position that makes it easier to avoid contamination of the environment and proper cleaning of the child's skin. CCA Global created the poster with guidance from the staff of ECELS. The Delaware Valley Association for the Education of Young Children (DVAEYC) facilitated the arrangement. CCA Global is DVAEYC’s provider of shared services.  Reproduce and distribute the poster freely to child care professionals. Be sure to retain the citation and copyright. The poster may not be sold without permission from CCA Global. The source of the steps in the poster is the May 2013 updated online standards in Caring for Our Children, 3rd Edition, a publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Public Health Association, and the National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education. Updated 12/2013.